Rabu, 13 April 2011

FACTORS AFFECTING HEALTH AND ILLNESS

 

interns-teach-interns-rd PHYSICAL DIMENSION

Genetic make-up, age, developmental level, race and sex are all part of an individual’s physical dimension and strongly influence health status and health practices.

EMOTIONAL DIMENSIONS

How the mind and body interact to affect body function and to respond to body conditions also influences health. Long-term stress affects the body systems and anxiety affects health habits; conversely, calm acceptance and relaxation can actually change body responses to illness.

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INTELLECTUAL DIMENSION

The intellectual dimension encompasses cognitive abilities, educational background and past experiences. These influence a client’s responses to teaching about health and reactions to health care during illness. They also play a major role in health behaviors.

ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSION

The environment has many influences on health and illness. Housing, sanitation, climate, and pollution of air, food and water are aspects of environmental dimension.

SOCIOCULTURAL DIMENSION

Health practices and beliefs are strongly influenced by a person’s economic level, life style, family and culture. Low-income groups are less likely to seek health care to prevent or treat illness; high-income groups are more prone to stress-related habits and illness. The family and the culture to which the person belongs determine patterns of living and values about health and illness that are often unalterable.

SPIRITUAL DIMENSION

Spiritual and religious beliefs and values are important components of the way the person behaves in health and illness.

LEVELS OF PREVENTION

PRIMARY PREVENTION

Providing specific protection against disease to prevent its occurrence is the most desirable form of prevention. Primary preventive efforts spare the client the cost, discomfort and the threat to the quality of life that illness poses or at least delay the onset of illness. Preventive measures consist of counseling, education and adoption of specific health practices or changes in life style.

SECONDARY PREVENTION

It consists of organized, direct screening efforts or education of the public to promote early case finding of an individual with disease so that prompt intervention can be instituted to halt pathologic processes and limit disability. Early diagnosis of a health problem can decrease the catastrophic effects that might otherwise result for the individual and the family from advanced illness and its many complications.

TERTIARY PREVENTION

It begins early in the period of recovery from illness and consists of such activities as consistent and appropriate administration of medications to optimize therapeutic effects, moving and positioning to prevent complications of immobility and passive and active exercises to prevent disability. Continuing health supervision during rehabilitation to restore an individual to an optimal level of functioning. Minimizing residual disability and helping the client learn to live productively with limitations are the goals of tertiary prevention (Pender, 1987).

STAGES OF ILLNESS BEHAVIOR

STAGE 1: SYMPTOM EXPERIENCE

The person is aware that "something is wrong". A person usually recognizes a physical sensation or a limitation in functioning but does not suspect a specific diagnosis.

STAGE 2 : ASSUMPTION OF THE SICK ROLE

If symptoms persist and become severe, clients assume the sick role.

STAGE 3: MEDICAL CARE CONTACT

If symptoms persist despite the home remedies, become severe, or require emergency care, the person is motivated to seek professional health services.

STAGE 4 : DEPENDENT CLIENT ROLE

The client depends on health care professionals for the relief of symptoms.

STAGE 5 : RECOVERY AND REHABILITATION

This stage can arrive suddenly, such as when the symptoms appeared.

FACTORS AFFECTING HEALTH AND ILLNESS

PHYSICAL DIMENSION

Genetic make-up, age, developmental level, race and sex are all part of an individual’s physical dimension and strongly influence health status and health practices.

Ex:

1. A toddler just learning to walk is prone to fall and injure himself.

2. A young woman who has a family history of breast cancer and diabetes and therefore is at higher risk to develop these conditions.

EMOTIONAL DIMENSIONS

How the mind and body interact to affect body function and to respond to body conditions also influence health. Long-term stress affects the body systems and anxiety affects health habits; conversely, calm acceptance and relaxation can actually change body responses to illness.

Ex.

a. Prior to a test, a student always has diarrhea.

b. Extremely nervous about a surgery, a man experiences severe pain following his operation.

c. Using relaxation techniques, a young woman reduces her pain during the delivery of her baby.

INTELLECTUAL DIMENSION

The intellectual dimension encompasses cognitive abilities, educational background and past experiences. These influence a client’s responses to teaching about health and reactions to health care during illness. They also play a major role in health behaviors.

Ex.

a. An elderly woman who has only a third-grade education who needs teaching about a complicated diagnostic test.

b. A young college student with diabetes who follows a diabetic diet but continues to drink beer and eat pizza with friends several times a week.

ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSION

The environment has many influences on health and illness. Housing, sanitation, climate, and pollution of air, food and water are aspects of environmental dimension.

Ex. a. Increased incidence of asthma and respiratory problems in large cities with smog.

SOCIOCULTURAL DIMENSION

Health practices and beliefs are strongly influenced by a person’s economic level, life style, family and culture. Low-income groups are less likely to seek health care to prevent or treat illness; high-income groups are more prone to stress-related habits and illness. The family and the culture to which the person belongs determine patterns of living and values about health and illness that are often unalterable.

Ex.

a. An adolescent who sees nothing wrong with smoking or drinking because his parents smoke and drink.

b. A person of Asian descent who uses herbal remedies and acupunctures to treat an illness.

SPIRITUAL DIMENSION

Spiritual and religious beliefs and values are important components of the way the person behaves in health and illness.

Ex.

a. Roman Catholic requires baptism for both livebirths and stillborn babies.

b. Jehovah's Witnesses are opposed to blood transfusions.

LEVELS OF PREVENTION

PRIMARY PREVENTION

Providing specific protection against disease to prevent its occurrence is the most desirable form of prevention. Primary preventive efforts spare the client the cost, discomfort and the threat to the quality of life that illnesses poses or at least delay the onset of illness. Preventive measures consist of counseling, education and adoption of specific health practices or changes in life style.

Ex:

a. Mandatory immunization of children belonging to the age range of 0-59 months old to control acute infectious diseases.

b. Minimizing contamination of the work or general environment by asbestos dust, silicone dust, smoke, chemical pollutants and excessive noise.

SECONDARY PREVENTION

It consists of organized, direct screening efforts or education of the public to promote early case finding of an individual with disease so that prompt intervention can be instituted to halt pathologic processes and limit disability. Early diagnosis of a health problem can decrease the catastrophic effects that might otherwise result for the individual and the family from advanced illness and its many complications.

Ex.

a. Public education to promote breast self-examination, use of home kits for detection of occult blood in stool specimens and familiarity with the seven cancer danger signals.

b. Screening programs for hypertension, diabetes, uterine cancer (Pap smear), breast cancer (examination and mammography), glaucoma and sexually transmitted diseases (STD's)

TERTIARY PREVENTION

It begins early in the period of recovery from illness and consists of such activities as consistent and appropriate administration of medications to optimize therapeutic effects, moving and positioning to prevent complications of immobility and passive and active exercises to prevent disability. Continuing health supervision during rehabilitation to restore an individual to an optimal level of functioning. Minimizing residual disability and helping the client learn to live productively with limitations are the goals of tertiary prevention (Pender, 1987).

STAGES OF ILLNESS BEHAVIOR

STAGE 1: SYMPTOM EXPERIENCE

The person is aware that "something is wrong". A person usually recognizes a physical sensation or a limitation in functioning but does not suspect a specific diagnosis.

The person's perception of a symptom includes awareness of a physical change such as pain, a rash or a lump; evaluation of this change and a decision that it is a symptom of an illness, and an emotional response.

STAGE 2 : ASSUMPTION OF THE SICK ROLE

If symptoms persist and become severe, clients assume the sick role. At this point the illness becomes a social phenomenon, and sick people seek confirmation from their families and social groups that they are indeed ill and that they be excused from normal duties and role expectations.

STAGE 3: MEDICAL CARE CONTACT

If symptoms persist despite the home remedies, become severe, or require emergency care, the person is motivated to seek professional health services. In this stage the client seeks expert acknowledgement of the illness as well as the treatment.

STAGE 4 : DEPENDENT CLIENT ROLE

The client depends on health care professionals for the relief of symptoms. The client accepts care, sympathy and protection from the demands and stresses of life. A client can adopt the dependent role in a health care institution, at home, or in a community setting. The client must also adjust to the disruption of a daily schedule.

STAGE 5 : RECOVERY AND REHABILITATION

This stage can arrive suddenly, such as when the symptoms appeared. In the case of chronic illness, the final stage may involve in an adjustment to a prolonged reduction in health and functioning.

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1 komentar:

nomor 81 mengatakan...

blog yg menarik dan smoga byk yg mengunjungi..:) terima kasih

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